Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV)

Pulse wave is a physiological phenomenon, observable and measurable in the arterial system during blood circulation. During one heart systole a certain blood volume is expelled. This propagates through the arteries due to the reciprocal transformation between kinetic energy of a segment of the expelled blood volume and the potential energy of a stretched segment of the resilient vascular wall. We can observe the changes in pressure, blood flow, velocity and profile throughout the whole pulse wave. It can be used for classification of the artery elasticity.

The condition of the small and large arteries is key to prevention and diagnosis of cardio-vascular related illness. In particular, the stiffness and augmentation of the major arteries is a strong indication of potential health problems including heart attacks, heart failure, sclerosis, and renal complications. PWV Analysis and arterial stiffness indexes (EEI, DDI and DEI) can suggest to healthcare professional to begin appropriate treatment long before the symptoms or clinical signs appear.

Age and systolic pressure strongly correlate with PWV. In fact, the most important factor contributing to increase in PWV is age because of increased arterial stiffness caused by medial calcification and loss of elasticity. The measurement of pulse wave velocity is useful in the study of the effects of aging, vascular diseases, vaso-dilating and vaso-constricting agents on arteries.

VitalScan Vascular+ Pulse Wave Velocity measurement is a convenient method of quantifying arterial stiffness and augmentation. PWV provides invaluable insight into cardiovascular health, management of disease progression and monitoring the effects of medication, treatments, lifestyle and dietary habits.

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Segmental Vascular Assessment

Initial assessment is the most vital step in managing a patient’s health. As such, extracting as much information and achieving a broad road map of the arterial anatomy is crucial for proper arterial and vascular assessment. VitalScan Vascular+ Arterial Vascular Assessment measures blood pressure uses the identical standard as conventional arm cuffs. While the traditional arm cuff method just measures blood pressure, the VitalScan Vascular+ Arterial Vascular Assessment is a powerful measure which provides further insight into arterial stiffness.

The information collected during the VitalScan Vascular+ Arterial Vascular Assessment using the upper arm cuff is disseminated into a wide range of measurements. This data is then extrapolated into a number of indexes and further classifications which include the following:

• Arterial Stiffness Index (ASI)
• Blood Pressure (Brachial, Ankle)
• Pulse Pressure
• Pulse Rate
• Classification of Cardiovascular Condition

The information deduced from the VitalScan Vascular+ Arterial Vascular Assessment is invaluable for detecting risk factors and facilitating the identification of patients who may be at risk for cardiovascular events. Studies have shown that the Arterial Stiffness Index (ASI) illustrates a strong correlation between the functioning and integrity of coronary arteries and atherosclerotic lesions. This particular connection is significant in that atherosclerotic lesions are fatal yet may remain asymptomatic for decades. Over 60 million Americans carry these life-threatening issues so isolating high-risk individuals is most valuable.

The indexes generated by the VitalScan Vascular+ Arterial Vascular Assessment are far-reaching and provide important patient insight into a number of existing and potential health risks. These cardiovascular issues include the following:

• Atherosclerosis
• Infectious vasculitis
• Congenital abnormalities
• Hypertension
• Hyperlipoproteinemia

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Peripheral Arterial Tone (PAT)

PAT (Peripheral Arterial Tone) technology measures arterial tone changes in peripheral arterial beds. This information collected gives specialists important insight into the autonomic nervous system as well as the cardiovascular system. PAT technology is a noninvasive measure that is currently used to detect heart disease, erectile dysfunction and obstructive sleep apnea, however, it has also proven highly effective in the detection and monitoring of other cardiovascular conditions.

As PAT data imparts early-stage information, PAT technology is highly valuable in disease detection and follow-up, thereby improving patient treatment and healthcare costs. In addition to detecting cardiovascular disease, the PAT system also presents potential for improving the diagnosis and management of other medical conditions including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease and many others.
Peripheral Arterial Tone (PAT) is for research use only.

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Coronary Artery Respiratory Assessment (CRA)

Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs when the blood vessels that transport blood to the heart are narrowed and hardened due to plaque buildup (atherosclerosis). This narrowing compromises the flow of nutrient-rich, oxygenated blood to vital organs which can lead to stroke, heart attack and death. In fact, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death among American adults. As such, detection are treatment are at the forefront of relevance.

The photoplethysmograph (PPG) waveform has profound prognostic value for coronary artery disease. Studies show that fluctuations measured in photoplethysmograph (PPG) amplitude are directly related to coronary artery disease (CAD) and present powerful predictions of risk.

Photoplethysmograph (PPG) is measured using a non-invasive, radiation-free platform. This proprietary test system was developed by VitalScan Vascular+ and utilizes a biosensor finger probe to collect data. The patient is then asked to perform a series of controlled breathing exercises. The coronary respiratory response (CRR) is derived from spectral analysis of the PPG signal during instructed breathing.

The PPG signal is automatically extracted and captured for processing. Using algorithms and analyzing software, a reading is produced which offers a timely and accurate diagnosis of Significant Coronary Artery Disease (S-CAD)
Coronary Artery Respiratory Assessment (CRA) is for research use only.

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